FAQ

The noise is normal, since components in the cooling circuit are automatically adjusted every time the thermostat is switched on.

The cooling circuit of the units contains oil, which can then run out of the compressor and into the cooling circuit. This means that the lubricant is insufficient upon switching on the unit and the compressor can be damaged. (However, should it be necessary to transport the unit on its side, the unit should be left upright for 24 hours before being switched on).
Furthermore, if the unit is transported in any manner other than upright, the oscillation mounts of the compressor can become unhinged, which becomes apparent by rattling noises and also makes it necessary to exchange the compressor.

The SmartCool System offers greater cooling output, lower temperatures and the highest precision. LAUDA Proline cooling thermostats have a microprocessor-controlled cooling management- unique in this class. The intelligent cooling control increases or reduces cooling in perfect accordance with the required operating status. Furthermore, the automatic compressor control switches the compressor on - but only if it is really needed.

In the heating area, the Varioflex pump works trouble-free up to viscosities of 150 mm²/s. 50 mm²/s should not be exceeded in controlled operation. Temperature control is optimal from 30 mm²/s.

Yes; the T ih and T iL settings can adjust the temperature entry to the operating restrictions of the heat transfer liquid.

Silicone oils dissolve silicone rubber, which leads to problems with leaks after a while.

Thermostats without appropriate safety measures can represent a hazard for personnel and objects. One need only consider that temperatures outside the water temperature range involve the use of a liquid which is usually flammable, so that the resulting danger can readily be appreciated. LAUDA was the first manufacturer to provide special safety fittings on the thermostat for overtemperature protection and low-level protection. Safety devices for thermostats were defined for the first time in 1979 in the DIN 12879 standard. Safety classes were introduced which demand particular safety devices depending on the heat transfer liquid.
In the course of the internationalisation of standards, DIN 12879 has been replaced by the Euronorms EN 61010-1 and 61010-2-010. Thermostats must be equipped with different safety fittings depending on the flammability of the heat transfer liquid.
Since the EN standard does not state any concrete requirements in this respect, the necessary requirements to be met are stipulated in the DIN 12876-1 standard: Units of safety class I are only suitable for the use with non-flammable liquids, additionally marked "NFL" by LAUDA. The safe operation of these units is guaranteed by an incorporated overtemperature protection. Laboratory thermostats of safety class III are suitable for the use with flammable liquids, additionally marked "FL" by LAUDA. These units are fitted with a low-level protection and with an adjustable overtemperature protection as well.
NFL = non-flammable liquid
FL = flammable liquid

At higher temperatures every heat transfer liquid produces a smell to a greater or lesser extent. The temperature range of the LAUDA heat transfer liquids is restricted so as to avoid unpleasant smells.
Smell becomes particularly annoying when working at high temperatures with an open bath. The user should always examine whether it is possible to use a bath cover. Where an open bath is essential, smells can be avoided by arranging a draw-off vent at the liquid surface. Where possible the entire thermostat should be placed inside a fume hood.
If the thermostat is only required for circulation and is operating continuously at high temperatures, it is advisable to use the high-temperature thermostat USH 400 which is specially designed to avoid any unpleasant smells.

The pump levels 1 to 3 are practical pump output steps for small bath thermostats (e.g. the RP 845). For use as a circulation thermostat with external consumer, a higher output level is practical in order to maintain a low temperature difference, e.g. in the case of high temperatures in conjunction with oils as heat transfer liquids.

The water content of the LAUDA Kryo 20, Kryo 60, Kryo 51 silicone oils is tested in accordance with the Karl Fischer method.
Upon delivery, the maximum water proportion is 50 ppm. Basically, silicone oils have the hygroscopic feature of absorbing moisture from the surrounding air. The water proportion increases the longer they are used.

The water can be removed by adding so-called zeolite pellets (these are ion exchangers). The pellets have a diameter of 1.5 - 2.5 mm. They may be added, for example, via the tea-bag method, or via a zeolite column. The zeolite pellets should be added at a ratio of approx. 0.5% - i.e. 100 kg Kryo 20 = 500 g zeolite. The pellets can then be reactivated in a dry oven at approx. 120 °C.

Alternatives:

  • Heat up Kryo 20 > 100°C. The water evaporates
  • Heat up Kryo 51 >100°C. The water evaporates.
  • Heat up Kryo 60 max. 85°C. The water evaporates.

Please note:

In laboratory thermometers, heat transfer liquids may be operated at a maximum temperature of up to 25 °C below the fire point of the appropriate heat transfer liquid. DIN EN 61010-1, safety regulations for electrical measuring, control and laboratory instruments – Part 1: General Requirements (IEC 61010-1:2001); German Version EN 61010-1:2001)

Example:

The fire point of Kryo 60 is approx. 110 °C.
The upper temperature limit is therefore 110°C - 25 °C = 85°C

Basically, a difference must be made between our guarantee conditions for the Federal Republic of Germany and export. To explain the latter first of all: as a rule, our devices are sold to consumers abroad by our business partners abroad: these business partners have their own guarantee conditions which can differ from country to country.
In the Federal Republic of Germany, the claims arising from a defect covered by the guarantee conditions form part of our General Standard Terms and Conditions, where they are detailed. Hence, only the most important points are mentioned in the following. Basically, claims arising from a defect can be asserted within one year of the purchase date. LAUDA also offers a free, 2-year manufacturer’s guarantee on thermostats and circulation chillers. All you have to do to enjoy this guarantee is to register the product with LAUDA within four weeks of the purchase date. In the event of a defect occurring: for smaller devices, please send the devices to our factory, where they will be repaired quickly and professionally. No costs will be incurred for the client from repairs made to devices within the guarantee period. Larger refrigeration equipment, Ultra cryomats, process and circulation chillers and Heating and cooling systems are all repaired at the client’s premises by our service technicians.

The set temperature and the pump output are very easy to be set in the Master version. Most other functions are also available in the Master version. They can be found in the submenus and are easy to be located with the aid of the operating instructions. This of course is much easier with the Command version, since 'clear text' is spoken in diverse languages in the graphic display and an operating philosophy familiar from the PC is used. Then there are the functions particular to the Command version:

  • A data recorder can store and graphically display the temperature sequential curves of the internal probe and of an optional external temperature probe for up to 132 hours.
  • A programmer with which complex temperature sequences with up to 150 jumps or ramps can be stored in up to 5 programs.
  • The pump level and the relay outlets of the relay modules can be changed in each segment.
  • Two time switches for switching on/off, with day and week program.
  • RS 232/RS 485 interface as standard.
  • A real-time clock, with whose aid all warnings, faults and error messages with a time stamp are stored in the fault memory.
  • Online help for all functions.
  • Remote control possibility

The set temperature and the pump output are very easy to be set in the Master version. Most other functions are also available in the Master version. They can be found in the submenus and are easy to be located with the aid of the operating instructions. This of course is much easier with the Command version, since 'clear text' is spoken in diverse languages in the graphic display and an operating philosophy familiar from the PC is used. Then there are the functions particular to the Command version:

  • A data recorder can store and graphically display the temperature sequential curves of the internal probe and of an optional external temperature probe for up to 132 hours.
  • A programmer with which complex temperature sequences with up to 150 jumps or ramps can be stored in up to 5 programs.
  • The pump level and the relay outlets of the relay modules can be changed in each segment.
  • Two time switches for switching on/off, with day and week program.
  • RS 232/RS 485 interface as standard.
  • A real-time clock, with whose aid all warnings, faults and error messages with a time stamp are stored in the fault memory.
  • Online help for all functions.
  • Remote control possibility

The control parameters have been ideally adjusted for bath operation without an external system and for typical external systems. Should the control quality be insufficient, an experienced control mechanic should carry out optimisation measures. In an emergency, however, the factory settings can be re-activated at any time in accordance with the operating instructions.

This allows each and every user to enter a value without the user having to have any previous knowledge. It may transpire later that there are different tasks and that each method of making an entry has its own advantages.

All devices come equipped with a Varioflex pump with 8-stage variable drive. The pump output can therefore be optimally adjusted to meet the requirements of each task:

  • High pump pressure when, for example, long tubes lead to external systems or a large bath is to be circulated,
  • Low pressure when the bath requires a low heat input.

As a pressure/suction pump, the Varioflex pump allows the very effective supply of pressure-sensitive glass reactors with minimal permitted pressurisation. Furthermore, open containers can be operated at a constant level if a level controller is used.

In general, it is of course possible to use the two. If you wish to operate an Ecoline/Integral thermostat, the Wintherm Plus programmer, as opposed to the thermostat's programmer, has a number of additional features like tolerance range monitoring and starting value preset. Otherwise, we recommend, in particular for programs which are to run over longer periods of time (days, weeks), to run them in the thermostat as it is more than unlikely that the thermostat would "crash", as can happen from time to time with computers, and the previously set nominal value will remain active.

Yes! Wintherm Plus has its own programmer which you can use to run ramp programs. To do this, set up the option "Wintherm Programmer" in the Programmer Start/Stop tab.

The set temperature and the pump output are very easy to be set in the Master version. Most other functions are also available in the Master version. They can be found in the submenus and are easy to be located with the aid of the operating instructions. This of course is much easier with the Command version, since 'clear text' is spoken in diverse languages in the graphic display and an operating philosophy familiar from the PC is used. Then there are the functions particular to the Command version:

  • A data recorder can store and graphically display the temperature sequential curves of the internal probe and of an optional external temperature probe for up to 132 hours.
  • A programmer with which complex temperature sequences with up to 150 jumps or ramps can be stored in up to 5 programs.
  • The pump level and the relay outlets of the relay modules can be changed in each segment.
  • Two time switches for switching on/off, with day and week program.
  • RS 232/RS 485 interface as standard.
  • A real-time clock, with whose aid all warnings, faults and error messages with a time stamp are stored in the fault memory.
  • Online help for all functions.
  • Remote control possibility

Each Proline program begins with the 'Start' segment. It determines at which temperature the next segment 1 should continue the program. It is not possible to specify a time in the start segment. With heating thermostats, the start temperature has to be selected above the bath temperature which is present before the start of the program. Without the start segment, segment 1 would be different at the start of each program depending on the bath temperature.

A program represents a so-called temperature profile or a temperature curve. A profile or curve like this is set by defining the various minimums and maximums using a temperature/time pairing. If, for example, you wish to raise the ambient temperature to +50 °C in 20 minutes and then reduce it to -10 °C in two hours, the corresponding temperature/time pairings (PN) will look as follows:

"99 segments" indicates that a program may consist of maximum 99 of these temperature/time pairings; or with the Ecoline E 3xx devices, Proline or with Integral there can be max. 150 segments, which can be divided up into up to five programs any way you like. The loop function with all LAUDA programmers allows the optional multiple run-through of a program. The change function allows a program to be edited. The pause function can stop the program sequence and restart it again whenever you want.

It is necessary to distinguish between three different cases:

  1. Several thermostats have to be linked together to produce a network.
    This is highly unlikely since no application is known at present where thermostats alone, without a PC, have to be linked together.
  2. A thermostat has to be networked with a PC.
    Here the LAUDA thermostats with RS 232 interface provide as standard all the necessary connections.
    Using the built-in RS 232 interface the systems can be connected to any computer system via its RS 232 interface.
  3. Several thermostats have to be networked with a PC.
    In this case all the units are linked to a PC as described under 2., using an RS 232 interface multiplexer.
    In this application it is necessary to use a control software matched to the RS 232 interface multiplexer. The RS 232 interface multiplexer and the necessary control software are available at specialist PC distributors. A better solution is using a LAUDA thermostat with incorportated combined RS 232/RS 485 interface. Via the RS 485 interface up to 127 thermostats can be controlled using a PC with an RS 485 interface card.

This is unfortunately not the case. These values are the key parameters of the so-called pump characteristics. In the above example of the LAUDA E 4 S, this means that the flow rate of 22 L/min is reached at a counterpressure of 0 bar, and that the flow rate is reduced to 0 L/min at a counterpressure of 0.5 bar. Intermediate values can be seen from the pump characteristics.

In the heating area, the Varioflex pump works trouble-free up to viscosities of 150 mm²/s. 50 mm²/s should not be exceeded in controlled operation. Temperature control is optimal from 30 mm²/s.

All of the Varioflex pump connections may be closed without having a damaging effect on the pump. To this end it is recommended to switch the bypass to the 'internal' position.

The volume of the external circuit should not exceed 50 per cent of the bath volume. For example, if the external circuit is a large double-jacket reactor, then a thermostat with a suitably large bath volume must be chosen. If the external volume is relatively large, the through-flow lasts longer leading to heat losses in the return line. The returning heat transfer liquid is mixed with that inside the bath and produces a mixing temperature which is increasingly below the set temperature as the bath volume is reduced. The returning heat transfer liquid thus represents a disturbance for the control circuit and has to be suitably compensated which in the end leads to poorer temperature stability.
In addition it is necessary to consider the effect of volumetric expansion. In a closed circuit the thermostat has to absorb the total volumetric expansion of the circulating liquid as well as the liquid inside the thermostat bath. With the maximum ratio of external to internal volume as indicated above, this already produces a volume increase of some 13 per cent per 100 °C referring to the bath volume. Over a larger temperature range the expansion is correspondingly increased and can quickly exceed the so-called buffer volume. The buffer volume is the difference between the maximum and the minimum volume of the thermostat. Thermostats with a specially large buffer volume are e.g. UB 30.

This is not possible. The flow rate is determined by the higher flow rate of the pressure pump compared with the suction pump. Addition is possible in the case of pressure. The effect is that the pump characteristic becomes 'steeper', i.e. that the flow rate is reduced by a smaller amount through the pressure drop caused by resistivity.

A closed external circuit does not drain as long as absolutely no air can pass into the system.

This does happen and has often led to flooding the laboratory. The only remedy is to "vent" the connecting hoses after the thermostat has been switched off. A more elegant solution is to fit a so-called reverse flow protection which vents the connections at the highest point with the aid of solenoid valves.

As a rule a circulation thermostat is equipped with a pressure pump which is capable of pumping the thermostated liquid at a stable temperature through a closed and pressure-tight external system. The external system is generally a double-jacket vessel, containing the thermostating material which does not come into contact with the thermostating liquid.
In a pressure/suction pump (D/S pump) the pump is equipped with a pressure stage and a suction stage which are driven by the same motor. The pressure stage pumps the liquid out of the thermostat into the external circuit, the suction stage draws the liquid back into the thermostat.
Like the pressure pump a pressure/suction pump can also be used for a closed circuit. Compared with a pure pressure pump it has the advantage that the pressure within the external circuit drops from positive values (pressure) to negative values (suction), and is virtually zero within the external system. This allows for thermostating pressure-sensitive glass vessels.
By means of a pressure/suction pump it is possible to connect an oben bath in addition to the closed external circuit. This is not possible with a pure pressure pump since this only transports the liquid into the bath. Additionally, returning the liquid from the bath to the thermostat requires a suction stage. To maintain a constant level within the external system it is necessary to provide a constant-level device which controls the flows of the two pump stages so that they are equal. This is the only way that a constant liquid level within the external bath can be maintained.
The LAUDA Duplex pump is also a pressure/suction pump but with a built-in constant-level device inside the thermostat. This again permits connection of an open external bath in addition to a closed circuit. The differences between Duplex pump and pressure/suction pump become evident when the effect of thermal expansion of the heat transfer liquid is considered. Since the Duplex pump maintains a constant level inside the thermostat, the thermal expansion in the combined volume of thermostat and external circuit appears in the external bath which may possibly overflow. In the case of the pressure/suction pump with external constant-level device the situation is reversed; here it is the thermostat which may overflow. It is therefore necessary always to consider the thermal expansion of the heat transfer liquid which usually amounts to 8% per 100 °C temperature change.

This is a special feature of the LAUDA Proline. The SelfCheck Assistant checks all parameters before the actual start of operations and especially the switch-off methods of the heater control. The alarm or error messages are shown in clear text on the display. In addition, the system registers not only operating failures such as low level, but also points out the maintenance method such as cleaning of the cooling grid.

Input and output connections for external systems are attached to the right-hand side and to the rear of the device. This means that the user has the option of connecting the tubes either to the rear or to the side, depending on the place of installation. There is also the option of connecting two external systems directly without a manifold connector. Any connections not required are closed with the accompanying screw caps. A bypass valve can divide the entire volume flow variably between the bath (internal) and the connected system (external). No pump link is therefore required. If no external system is connected to the pump connections, the bypass valve must be on the 'internal' position to ensure optimum bath circulation.

The pump levels 1 to 3 are practical pump output steps for small bath thermostats (e.g. the RP 845). For use as a circulation thermostat with external consumer, a higher output level is practical in order to maintain a low temperature difference, e.g. in the case of high temperatures in conjunction with oils as heat transfer liquids.

All devices come equipped with a Varioflex pump with 8-stage variable drive. The pump output can therefore be optimally adjusted to meet the requirements of each task:
· High pump pressure when, for example, long tubes lead to external systems or a large bath is to be circulated,
· Low pressure when the bath requires a low heat input.
As a pressure/suction pump, the Varioflex pump allows the very effective supply of pressure-sensitive glass reactors with minimal permitted pressurisation. Furthermore, open containers can be operated at a constant level if a level controller is used.

The cooling circuit of the units contains oil, which can then run out of the compressor and into the cooling circuit. This means that the lubricant is insufficient upon switching on the unit and the compressor can be damaged. (However, should it be necessary to transport the unit on its side, the unit should be left upright for 24 hours before being switched on).
Furthermore, if the unit is transported in any manner other than upright, the oscillation mounts of the compressor can become unhinged, which becomes apparent by rattling noises and also makes it necessary to exchange the compressor.

According to the DIN 58966 standard part 1, the control accuracy of a thermostat is designated and defined as temperature stability. Temperature stability as well as the corresponding specifications in the leaflet are based, in the case of a heating thermostat, on an operating temperature of 70 °C and water as thermostating liquid, and an ambient temperature of 20 °C. In the case of a cooling temperature thermostat they are based on an operating temperature of -10 °C and ethanol as thermostating liquid, with 20 °C ambient temperature.
Under constant conditions it can be taken that the temperature stability in both cases, measured with water and with ethanol as well, varies only slightly at higher and lower temperatures. Worse results are generally found when changing to a different heat transfer liquid, especially at higher operating temperatures.

In the heating area, the Varioflex pump works trouble-free up to viscosities of 150 mm²/s. 50 mm²/s should not be exceeded in controlled operation. Temperature control is optimal from 30 mm²/s.

All of the Varioflex pump connections may be closed without having a damaging effect on the pump. To this end it is recommended to switch the bypass to the 'internal' position.

Only specially designed thermostats are suitable for operation in hazardous areas. The necessary components, such as Ex-protected driving motor for the circulating pump, electrical heater, operating and control devices, are unsuitable for conventional laboratory thermostats because of their size and cost. Ex-protected thermostats are therefore usually much larger than laborytory units but also more powerful.
It is possible to use laboratory thermostats by placing them outside the hazardous area and passing the thermostating liquid through tubing into the hazardous area. Technical advice by a specialist is always necessary.

The volume of the external circuit should not exceed 50 per cent of the bath volume. For example, if the external circuit is a large double-jacket reactor, then a thermostat with a suitably large bath volume must be chosen. If the external volume is relatively large, the through-flow lasts longer leading to heat losses in the return line. The returning heat transfer liquid is mixed with that inside the bath and produces a mixing temperature which is increasingly below the set temperature as the bath volume is reduced. The returning heat transfer liquid thus represents a disturbance for the control circuit and has to be suitably compensated which in the end leads to poorer temperature stability.
In addition it is necessary to consider the effect of volumetric expansion. In a closed circuit the thermostat has to absorb the total volumetric expansion of the circulating liquid as well as the liquid inside the thermostat bath. With the maximum ratio of external to internal volume as indicated above, this already produces a volume increase of some 13 per cent per 100 °C referring to the bath volume. Over a larger temperature range the expansion is correspondingly increased and can quickly exceed the so-called buffer volume. The buffer volume is the difference between the maximum and the minimum volume of the thermostat. Thermostats with a specially large buffer volume are e.g. UB 30.

A closed external circuit does not drain as long as absolutely no air can pass into the system.

This does happen and has often led to flooding the laboratory. The only remedy is to "vent" the connecting hoses after the thermostat has been switched off. A more elegant solution is to fit a so-called reverse flow protection which vents the connections at the highest point with the aid of solenoid valves.

Alongside the mains in Great Britain (max. 15A) and in Switzerland (partial max. 10A), it can also be a practical measure to limit the current in those countries with 16A when only one socket is available and a further device is connected to the same electrical circuit.

The control system for external actual values comes as a 2-stage cascade controller. A master controller determines the 'internal set value' from the set temperature value and the external temperature, which is then forwarded to the follow-up controller. Its correcting variable controls heating and cooling. When a set temperature is specified, it may occur that the optimum control sets a bath temperature which is considerably in excess of the temperature desired or permitted on the external bath. There is a correcting variable restriction included in the software menu which specifies the maximum permitted deviation between the temperature at the external system and the heat transfer liquid temperature.

The control parameters have been ideally adjusted for bath operation without an external system and for typical external systems. Should the control quality be insufficient, an experienced control mechanic should carry out optimisation measures. In an emergency, however, the factory settings can be re-activated at any time in accordance with the operating instructions.

Silicone oils dissolve silicone rubber, which leads to problems with leaks after a while.

The manual start mode has been activated. This means that once the mains voltage has returned (by switching it on or following a power failure), the thermostat goes into stand-by mode and doesn't automatically return to the set temperature.

The actual mains switch is on the front side, due to its easy accessibility. The rear side has a 'circuit breaker', which combines a switching and safety function and which automatically cuts out in the case of overloading. This makes an all-pole cut-out possible.

Potentiometers can age and their resistance can gradually change. The Proline device is fully digitalised so that the potentiometer is no longer required. Activation of the Tmax button calls up the overtemperature cut-out point and, if required, changes it. Operation has been designed such that all safety regulations are complied with.

The keyboard is blocked. Please unblock it in accordance with the instructions.

The heating capacity is usually controlled by clocking the voltage on the heating element. This causes current feedbacks, known as 'flickers'. In Europe, the amount of flickers by electrical devices is limited. With its patented technology, LAUDA has succeeded in limiting these disruptions such that the maximum power available from a normal 16 A socket can be converted from 3600 W into 3500 W heating capacity.

Master and Command recognise which modules are connected and only fade in the dialogues to the existing modules (the cooling circuit is also a module). Command also takes into account higher settings which require other dialogues (e.g. the timer dialogue is different for day and week programs).

The cooling circuit of the units contains oil, which can then run out of the compressor and into the cooling circuit. This means that the lubricant is insufficient upon switching on the unit and the compressor can be damaged. (However, should it be necessary to transport the unit on its side, the unit should be left upright for 24 hours before being switched on).
Furthermore, if the unit is transported in any manner other than upright, the oscillation mounts of the compressor can become unhinged, which becomes apparent by rattling noises and also makes it necessary to exchange the compressor.

Working temperature range and operating temperature range are concepts defined in the DIN 58966 standard, part 1. The working temperature range is defined there as the temperature range reached at an ambient temperature of 20 °C by the thermostat alone, using only the specified energy sources and not using any additional devices. In practice the energy source is nearly always electrical energy.
In a heating thermostat the working temperature range starts approximately 3 °C above the so-called intrinsic temperature and in most cases ends at the upper limit of the operating temperature. The intrinsic temperature is produced when the heating is switched off, due to the mechanical energy input, and depends on the pump output, the insulation of the thermostat, and the heat transfer liquid used. If for example the bath cover is not included in the standard accessories, the upper limit of the working temperature range is restricted to the operating temperature which can be reached by the thermostat without a bath cover at 20 °C ambient temperature.
The operating temperature range, by contrast, is limited by the permitted lowest and highest operating temperatures. If e.g. for a heating thermostat the specification includes temperature ranges below the intrinsic temperature of the unit, this is always the operating temperature range since in this case an external cooling device is required.
It has in the meantime become the practice for heating thermostats with built-in cooling coil to include in the working temperature range the temperatures which can be reached by mains water cooling. However this has to be indicated.
For a low-temperature thermostat, which always incorporates a cooling unit, only the working temperature range is specified.
ACC-range (Active cooling control area according to DIN 12876 standard) is the operating temperature range during operation with an active cooling unit. Example: working temperature range: -30…150 °C, ACC area: -30…100 °C. This information implies that the cooling unit cannot work continuously at temperatures of above 100 °C. The working temperature range is equal to the ACC-range in all LAUDA devices.

This is half the average width of the operating temperature fluctuations which is produced through the control action even under constant conditions. Definition and measurement are laid down in the DIN 58966 standard parts 1 and 2.
The temperature stability thus indicates only how the temperature at a particular point varies with time, and does not specify the distribution of the average temperature within the thermostat. Depending on the construction, on the heat transfer liquid used and on the set operating temperature, there will be differences which may be appreciably larger than the temperature stability. LAUDA thermostats generally provide such thorough mixing inside the thermostat that there are no important deviations at the bath opening. For the so-called LAUDA calibration thermostats the spatial variations lie within the temperature stability range.
Temperature stability provides no information on the absolute temperature accuracy, i.e. how far the temperature indication on the display agrees with reading of an absolutely accurate thermometer. In LAUDA thermostats this accuracy is in the range of one-tenth of a degree over the range from 0 up to 100 °C. The exact details are contained in the operating instructions of the individual units.

Thermostats without appropriate safety measures can represent a hazard for personnel and objects. One need only consider that temperatures outside the water temperature range involve the use of a liquid which is usually flammable, so that the resulting danger can readily be appreciated. LAUDA was the first manufacturer to provide special safety fittings on the thermostat for overtemperature protection and low-level protection. Safety devices for thermostats were defined for the first time in 1979 in the DIN 12879 standard. Safety classes were introduced which demand particular safety devices depending on the heat transfer liquid.
In the course of the internationalisation of standards, DIN 12879 has been replaced by the Euronorms EN 61010-1 and 61010-2-010. Thermostats must be equipped with different safety fittings depending on the flammability of the heat transfer liquid.
Since the EN standard does not state any concrete requirements in this respect, the necessary requirements to be met are stipulated in the DIN 12876-1 standard: Units of safety class I are only suitable for the use with non-flammable liquids, additionally marked "NFL" by LAUDA. The safe operation of these units is guaranteed by an incorporated overtemperature protection. Laboratory thermostats of safety class III are suitable for the use with flammable liquids, additionally marked "FL" by LAUDA. These units are fitted with a low-level protection and with an adjustable overtemperature protection as well.
NFL = non-flammable liquid
FL = flammable liquid

Many thermostats have, in addition to the temperature probe inside the thermostat, a facility for connecting an external temperature probe which measures the temperature in the external thermostating material. Depending on the model, the temperature indication of the thermostat can be switched from internal to external temperature or to continuous indication.
External control is a much more comprehensive concept. While it also involves a measurement of the external temperature, this influences the temperature control of the thermostat to produce cascade control. The reason is as follows: depending on the operating temperature and the length of the connection between thermostat and external system there is a temperature difference which is additionally affected by fluctuating ambient temperatures and variable heat demand in the external system. In order to get a constant temperature in the external system it is necessary to control the thermostat according to the heat required by the external system. LAUDA external control ensures that the temperature at the desired location is held at the set temperature. A necessary requirement is adequate thermal coupling between the thermostat liquid and the external measurement site.

This is a special feature of the LAUDA Proline. The SelfCheck Assistant checks all parameters before the actual start of operations and especially the switch-off methods of the heater control. The alarm or error messages are shown in clear text on the display. In addition, the system registers not only operating failures such as low level, but also points out the maintenance method such as cleaning of the cooling grid.

The terms "quickly" and "accurately" in this question are mutually exclusive. Either an approximate value of the required heating and cooling capacities can be calculated quickly, or an accurate time-consuming calculation is necessary. When calculating the required performance different situations must be taken into consideration. In many cases the thermostat is being used for cooling an external system of which a certain amount of energy has to be dissipated. If this amount of energy is known, the thermostat must at least provide the required cooling capacity at the appropriate operating temperature.

Applications often involve cooling down or heating up within a certain period of time. If the thermostat is used only as a bath thermostat it is important to know whether there is some material inside the bath which has to be thermostated. In that case the thermal capacity of the thermostated material has to be included.

For more information:http://www.laudaonline.com/hosting/lauda/webres.nsf/urlnames/graphics_te3/$file/T_6_7-d.pdf

Every thermostat incorporates a circulating pump which ensures thorough mixing of the heat transfer liquid inside the bath and also pumps the heat transfer liquid through an external circuit. The electrical energy taken up by the driving motor passes as thermal energy into the liquid and leads to a slow temperature rise inside the thermostat up to the so-called intrinsic temperature. The intrinsic temperature depends on the pump output, the insulation of the thermostat, and on the heat transfer liquid used. The intrinsic temperature of a heating thermostat can sometimes be as high as 70 °C or more. On the LAUDA Ecoline thermostats the intrinsic temperature is only slightly above the ambient temperature if one of the lower of the five pump output steps is selected. Without cooling the thermostat can only be operated above the intrinsic temperature. The data in the publications refer only to water as heat transfer liquid and to an ambient temperature of 20 °C. With more viscous heat transfer liquids and at higher ambient temperatures the intrinsic temperature may be appreciably higher so that the specified working temperature range is restricted.

An alarm always switches off the heating and the pump. Following an alarm, the device will only run again once the alarm function has been reset (example: overtemperature, mains voltage too low, bath low level).
Warnings can be cancelled by activating the enter button without causing disruption (example: bath super-level, dirty condenser, etc.). However, if the cause has not been rectified, the warning is given out once again after a few seconds. It is possible to ignore warnings by scrolling the arrow keys to the internal or external temperature display on Master or by activation of the 'screen' softkey on Command. However, the warning remains in the background. The arrow keys on Master and the 'screen' softkey on Command may be used to scroll the warning back into the display.

  1. Check that the "Update" button (blue right arrow) is pressed. The automatic update deactivates when you zoom in or manually change the time axis.
  2. Check that you really have opened the currently valid measurement file. In the title bar you will see the name of the file and behind it, possibly, the "Archive" information, should the measurement be one that was already completed. This often happens when you have ended a recording and restart afterwards, which creates a new measurement file, but the old measurement remains open.

In its default setting, Wintherm Plus takes a recording every 10 seconds. To keep the number of measured values manageable, check to see if you can increase the recording interval. You can adjust this interval under Start --> Recording interval.

The measured value files are already stored in a format which can be read by Microsoft Excel (Dbase *.dbf). As such, you can open the file directly from Excel and generate your own graphics.

You can connect up to 128 thermostats to a serial interface by using an external RS 232 to RS 485 converter.

Unfortunately not. For technical reasons, a special LAUDA protocol has to be used.

You can easily upgrade your computer/laptop with a USB to RS 232 converter. These can be bought very cheaply at any computer retailer. If you want to connect multiple thermostats to your computer/laptop, you can use interface cards, etc. We will be glad to advise you when making your selection.

In general, it is of course possible to use the two. If you wish to operate an Ecoline/Integral thermostat, the Wintherm Plus programmer, as opposed to the thermostat's programmer, has a number of additional features like tolerance range monitoring and starting value preset. Otherwise, we recommend, in particular for programs which are to run over longer periods of time (days, weeks), to run them in the thermostat as it is more than unlikely that the thermostat would "crash", as can happen from time to time with computers, and the previously set nominal value will remain active.

Yes! Wintherm Plus has its own programmer which you can use to run ramp programs. To do this, set up the option "Wintherm Programmer" in the Programmer Start/Stop tab.

The control system for external actual values comes as a 2-stage cascade controller. A master controller determines the 'internal set value' from the set temperature value and the external temperature, which is then forwarded to the follow-up controller. Its correcting variable controls heating and cooling. When a set temperature is specified, it may occur that the optimum control sets a bath temperature which is considerably in excess of the temperature desired or permitted on the external bath. There is a correcting variable restriction included in the software menu which specifies the maximum permitted deviation between the temperature at the external system and the heat transfer liquid temperature.

The control parameters have been ideally adjusted for bath operation without an external system and for typical external systems. Should the control quality be insufficient, an experienced control mechanic should carry out optimisation measures. In an emergency, however, the factory settings can be re-activated at any time in accordance with the operating instructions.

This allows each and every user to enter a value without the user having to have any previous knowledge. It may transpire later that there are different tasks and that each method of making an entry has its own advantages.

Each Proline program begins with the 'Start' segment. It determines at which temperature the next segment 1 should continue the program. It is not possible to specify a time in the start segment. With heating thermostats, the start temperature has to be selected above the bath temperature which is present before the start of the program. Without the start segment, segment 1 would be different at the start of each program depending on the bath temperature.

The keyboard is blocked. Please unblock it in accordance with the instructions.

Master and Command recognise which modules are connected and only fade in the dialogues to the existing modules (the cooling circuit is also a module). Command also takes into account higher settings which require other dialogues (e.g. the timer dialogue is different for day and week programs).

A program represents a so-called temperature profile or a temperature curve. A profile or curve like this is set by defining the various minimums and maximums using a temperature/time pairing. If, for example, you wish to raise the ambient temperature to +50 °C in 20 minutes and then reduce it to -10 °C in two hours, the corresponding temperature/time pairings (PN) will look as follows:

"99 segments" indicates that a program may consist of maximum 99 of these temperature/time pairings; or with the Ecoline E 3xx devices, Proline or with Integral there can be max. 150 segments, which can be divided up into up to five programs any way you like. The loop function with all LAUDA programmers allows the optional multiple run-through of a program. The change function allows a program to be edited. The pause function can stop the program sequence and restart it again whenever you want.

This is a special feature of the LAUDA Proline. The SelfCheck Assistant checks all parameters before the actual start of operations and especially the switch-off methods of the heater control. The alarm or error messages are shown in clear text on the display. In addition, the system registers not only operating failures such as low level, but also points out the maintenance method such as cleaning of the cooling grid.

Alongside the integrated Pt 100, which measures the bath temperature, an external Pt 100 can be connected. Actual values can also be established via the analogue or digital modules.

It is necessary to distinguish between three different cases:

  1. Several thermostats have to be linked together to produce a network.
    This is highly unlikely since no application is known at present where thermostats alone, without a PC, have to be linked together.
  2. A thermostat has to be networked with a PC.
    Here the LAUDA thermostats with RS 232 interface provide as standard all the necessary connections.
    Using the built-in RS 232 interface the systems can be connected to any computer system via its RS 232 interface.
  3. Several thermostats have to be networked with a PC.
    In this case all the units are linked to a PC as described under 2., using an RS 232 interface multiplexer.
    In this application it is necessary to use a control software matched to the RS 232 interface multiplexer. The RS 232 interface multiplexer and the necessary control software are available at specialist PC distributors. A better solution is using a LAUDA thermostat with incorportated combined RS 232/RS 485 interface. Via the RS 485 interface up to 127 thermostats can be controlled using a PC with an RS 485 interface card.

An alarm always switches off the heating and the pump. Following an alarm, the device will only run again once the alarm function has been reset (example: overtemperature, mains voltage too low, bath low level).
Warnings can be cancelled by activating the enter button without causing disruption (example: bath super-level, dirty condenser, etc.). However, if the cause has not been rectified, the warning is given out once again after a few seconds. It is possible to ignore warnings by scrolling the arrow keys to the internal or external temperature display on Master or by activation of the 'screen' softkey on Command. However, the warning remains in the background. The arrow keys on Master and the 'screen' softkey on Command may be used to scroll the warning back into the display.

According to the DIN 58966 standard part 1, the control accuracy of a thermostat is designated and defined as temperature stability. Temperature stability as well as the corresponding specifications in the leaflet are based, in the case of a heating thermostat, on an operating temperature of 70 °C and water as thermostating liquid, and an ambient temperature of 20 °C. In the case of a cooling temperature thermostat they are based on an operating temperature of -10 °C and ethanol as thermostating liquid, with 20 °C ambient temperature.
Under constant conditions it can be taken that the temperature stability in both cases, measured with water and with ethanol as well, varies only slightly at higher and lower temperatures. Worse results are generally found when changing to a different heat transfer liquid, especially at higher operating temperatures.

Only specially designed thermostats are suitable for operation in hazardous areas. The necessary components, such as Ex-protected driving motor for the circulating pump, electrical heater, operating and control devices, are unsuitable for conventional laboratory thermostats because of their size and cost. Ex-protected thermostats are therefore usually much larger than laborytory units but also more powerful.
It is possible to use laboratory thermostats by placing them outside the hazardous area and passing the thermostating liquid through tubing into the hazardous area. Technical advice by a specialist is always necessary.

Yes; by means of the 'set value offset' operating modus, the bath follows a value which can come from an external set value source (Pt 100, interfaces) - directly or differing by a fixed temperature value.

Yes; the T ih and T iL settings can adjust the temperature entry to the operating restrictions of the heat transfer liquid.

The control system for external actual values comes as a 2-stage cascade controller. A master controller determines the 'internal set value' from the set temperature value and the external temperature, which is then forwarded to the follow-up controller. Its correcting variable controls heating and cooling. When a set temperature is specified, it may occur that the optimum control sets a bath temperature which is considerably in excess of the temperature desired or permitted on the external bath. There is a correcting variable restriction included in the software menu which specifies the maximum permitted deviation between the temperature at the external system and the heat transfer liquid temperature.

Potentiometers can age and their resistance can gradually change. The Proline device is fully digitalised so that the potentiometer is no longer required. Activation of the Tmax button calls up the overtemperature cut-out point and, if required, changes it. Operation has been designed such that all safety regulations are complied with.

Working temperature range and operating temperature range are concepts defined in the DIN 58966 standard, part 1. The working temperature range is defined there as the temperature range reached at an ambient temperature of 20 °C by the thermostat alone, using only the specified energy sources and not using any additional devices. In practice the energy source is nearly always electrical energy.
In a heating thermostat the working temperature range starts approximately 3 °C above the so-called intrinsic temperature and in most cases ends at the upper limit of the operating temperature. The intrinsic temperature is produced when the heating is switched off, due to the mechanical energy input, and depends on the pump output, the insulation of the thermostat, and the heat transfer liquid used. If for example the bath cover is not included in the standard accessories, the upper limit of the working temperature range is restricted to the operating temperature which can be reached by the thermostat without a bath cover at 20 °C ambient temperature.
The operating temperature range, by contrast, is limited by the permitted lowest and highest operating temperatures. If e.g. for a heating thermostat the specification includes temperature ranges below the intrinsic temperature of the unit, this is always the operating temperature range since in this case an external cooling device is required.
It has in the meantime become the practice for heating thermostats with built-in cooling coil to include in the working temperature range the temperatures which can be reached by mains water cooling. However this has to be indicated.
For a low-temperature thermostat, which always incorporates a cooling unit, only the working temperature range is specified.
ACC-range (Active cooling control area according to DIN 12876 standard) is the operating temperature range during operation with an active cooling unit. Example: working temperature range: -30…150 °C, ACC area: -30…100 °C. This information implies that the cooling unit cannot work continuously at temperatures of above 100 °C. The working temperature range is equal to the ACC-range in all LAUDA devices.

This is half the average width of the operating temperature fluctuations which is produced through the control action even under constant conditions. Definition and measurement are laid down in the DIN 58966 standard parts 1 and 2.
The temperature stability thus indicates only how the temperature at a particular point varies with time, and does not specify the distribution of the average temperature within the thermostat. Depending on the construction, on the heat transfer liquid used and on the set operating temperature, there will be differences which may be appreciably larger than the temperature stability. LAUDA thermostats generally provide such thorough mixing inside the thermostat that there are no important deviations at the bath opening. For the so-called LAUDA calibration thermostats the spatial variations lie within the temperature stability range.
Temperature stability provides no information on the absolute temperature accuracy, i.e. how far the temperature indication on the display agrees with reading of an absolutely accurate thermometer. In LAUDA thermostats this accuracy is in the range of one-tenth of a degree over the range from 0 up to 100 °C. The exact details are contained in the operating instructions of the individual units.

Many thermostats have, in addition to the temperature probe inside the thermostat, a facility for connecting an external temperature probe which measures the temperature in the external thermostating material. Depending on the model, the temperature indication of the thermostat can be switched from internal to external temperature or to continuous indication.
External control is a much more comprehensive concept. While it also involves a measurement of the external temperature, this influences the temperature control of the thermostat to produce cascade control. The reason is as follows: depending on the operating temperature and the length of the connection between thermostat and external system there is a temperature difference which is additionally affected by fluctuating ambient temperatures and variable heat demand in the external system. In order to get a constant temperature in the external system it is necessary to control the thermostat according to the heat required by the external system. LAUDA external control ensures that the temperature at the desired location is held at the set temperature. A necessary requirement is adequate thermal coupling between the thermostat liquid and the external measurement site.

This is a special feature of the LAUDA Proline. The SelfCheck Assistant checks all parameters before the actual start of operations and especially the switch-off methods of the heater control. The alarm or error messages are shown in clear text on the display. In addition, the system registers not only operating failures such as low level, but also points out the maintenance method such as cleaning of the cooling grid.

The SmartCool System offers greater cooling output, lower temperatures and the highest precision. LAUDA Proline cooling thermostats have a microprocessor-controlled cooling management- unique in this class. The intelligent cooling control increases or reduces cooling in perfect accordance with the required operating status. Furthermore, the automatic compressor control switches the compressor on - but only if it is really needed.

Alongside the integrated Pt 100, which measures the bath temperature, an external Pt 100 can be connected. Actual values can also be established via the analogue or digital modules.

The terms "quickly" and "accurately" in this question are mutually exclusive. Either an approximate value of the required heating and cooling capacities can be calculated quickly, or an accurate time-consuming calculation is necessary. When calculating the required performance different situations must be taken into consideration. In many cases the thermostat is being used for cooling an external system of which a certain amount of energy has to be dissipated. If this amount of energy is known, the thermostat must at least provide the required cooling capacity at the appropriate operating temperature.

Applications often involve cooling down or heating up within a certain period of time. If the thermostat is used only as a bath thermostat it is important to know whether there is some material inside the bath which has to be thermostated. In that case the thermal capacity of the thermostated material has to be included.

Every thermostat incorporates a circulating pump which ensures thorough mixing of the heat transfer liquid inside the bath and also pumps the heat transfer liquid through an external circuit. The electrical energy taken up by the driving motor passes as thermal energy into the liquid and leads to a slow temperature rise inside the thermostat up to the so-called intrinsic temperature. The intrinsic temperature depends on the pump output, the insulation of the thermostat, and on the heat transfer liquid used. The intrinsic temperature of a heating thermostat can sometimes be as high as 70 °C or more. On the LAUDA Ecoline thermostats the intrinsic temperature is only slightly above the ambient temperature if one of the lower of the five pump output steps is selected. Without cooling the thermostat can only be operated above the intrinsic temperature. The data in the publications refer only to water as heat transfer liquid and to an ambient temperature of 20 °C. With more viscous heat transfer liquids and at higher ambient temperatures the intrinsic temperature may be appreciably higher so that the specified working temperature range is restricted.

Yes; by means of the 'set value offset' operating modus, the bath follows a value which can come from an external set value source (Pt 100, interfaces) - directly or differing by a fixed temperature value.

Unfortunately not. For technical reasons, a special LAUDA protocol has to be used.

Yes, since the various module functions don't make much sense if combined, e.g. a digital module and analogue module together with the contact module. Should they be combined, however, then it is possible to also access the serial interface in the Command module.

Alongside the mains in Great Britain (max. 15A) and in Switzerland (partial max. 10A), it can also be a practical measure to limit the current in those countries with 16A when only one socket is available and a further device is connected to the same electrical circuit.

The set temperature and the pump output are very easy to be set in the Master version. Most other functions are also available in the Master version. They can be found in the submenus and are easy to be located with the aid of the operating instructions. This of course is much easier with the Command version, since 'clear text' is spoken in diverse languages in the graphic display and an operating philosophy familiar from the PC is used. Then there are the functions particular to the Command version:

 

  • A data recorder can store and graphically display the temperature sequential curves of the internal probe and of an optional external temperature probe for up to 132 hours.
  • A programmer with which complex temperature sequences with up to 150 jumps or ramps can be stored in up to 5 programs.
  • The pump level and the relay outlets of the relay modules can be changed in each segment.
  • Two time switches for switching on/off, with day and week program.
  • RS 232/RS 485 interface as standard.
  • A real-time clock, with whose aid all warnings, faults and error messages with a time stamp are stored in the fault memory.
  • Online help for all functions.
  • Remote control possibility

A program represents a so-called temperature profile or a temperature curve. A profile or curve like this is set by defining the various minimums and maximums using a temperature/time pairing. If, for example, you wish to raise the ambient temperature to +50 °C in 20 minutes and then reduce it to -10 °C in two hours, the corresponding temperature/time pairings (PN) will look as follows:

"99 segments" indicates that a program may consist of maximum 99 of these temperature/time pairings; or with the Ecoline E 3xx devices, Proline or with Integral there can be max. 150 segments, which can be divided up into up to five programs any way you like. The loop function with all LAUDA programmers allows the optional multiple run-through of a program. The change function allows a program to be edited. The pause function can stop the program sequence and restart it again whenever you want.

Alongside the integrated Pt 100, which measures the bath temperature, an external Pt 100 can be connected. Actual values can also be established via the analogue or digital modules.

It is necessary to distinguish between three different cases:

  1. Several thermostats have to be linked together to produce a network.
    This is highly unlikely since no application is known at present where thermostats alone, without a PC, have to be linked together.
  2. A thermostat has to be networked with a PC.
    Here the LAUDA thermostats with RS 232 interface provide as standard all the necessary connections.
    Using the built-in RS 232 interface the systems can be connected to any computer system via its RS 232 interface.
  3. Several thermostats have to be networked with a PC.
    In this case all the units are linked to a PC as described under 2., using an RS 232 interface multiplexer.
    In this application it is necessary to use a control software matched to the RS 232 interface multiplexer. The RS 232 interface multiplexer and the necessary control software are available at specialist PC distributors. A better solution is using a LAUDA thermostat with incorportated combined RS 232/RS 485 interface. Via the RS 485 interface up to 127 thermostats can be controlled using a PC with an RS 485 interface card.

"The purpose of this Regulation is to protect the environment by reducing emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases (which include refrigerants). This Regulation therefore:

a) Defines rules for emission limiting and the use, recovery and destruction of fluorinated greenhouse gases and associated additional measures;
b) Defines conditions for placing on the market of specific products and equipment which contain fluorinated greenhouse gases or which need such gases in order to function,
c) Defines conditions for specific uses of fluorinated greenhouse gases and
d) Defines quantitative limits for placing on the market partly fluorinated hydrocarbons."

Source: Regulation (EU) 517/2014, Section 1, Article 1.

Regulation (EU) 517/2014 on fluorinated greenhouse gases, usually referred to as the F-gas Regulation, came into force on January 1, 2015. It was published in the Official Journal of the EU on May 20, 2014.

The previous Regulation (EU) 842/2006 was superseded by Regulation (EU) 517/2014 when it was introduced on January 1, 2015.

Phase down involves a gradual reduction in the quantities of fluorinated greenhouse gases (refrigerants) that are placed on the market, expressed as CO2 equivalents. The objective is to cut consumption by 79% by 2030. In order to achieve this target, the European Commission has allocated quotas to producers and importers of fluorinated greenhouse gases (refrigerants). This means that the industry and users will be obliged to switch to refrigerants that have a lower GWP value.

Phase down will impact operators as follows: It will result in fewer fluorinated greenhouse gases (refrigerants) being commercially available; in all likelihood this will mean higher prices. This is especially important as far as future repair and maintenance are concerned. The use of alternative refrigerants is also expected to increase, especially in applications for which bans have been announced beyond a specific date. Note that many alternatives are combustible and/or have particular properties that absolutely must be taken into account in order to handle refrigerants safely, efficiently and in conformity with applicable requirements.

The F-gas Regulation relates to so-called fluorinated greenhouse gases: partly fluorinated hydrocarbons ("HCFC"), perfluorinated hydrocarbons ("PFC"), sulfur hexafluoride ("SF6") and all other greenhouse gases which contain fluorine or mixtures that contain one of these substances. For LAUDA, this means: R134a (GWP = 1430), R407C (GWP = 1770), R407F (GWP = 1820), R449A (GWP = 1400), R404A (GWP = 3920), R507 (GWP = 3990), R410A (GWP = 2090), R508A (GWP = 13200), R23 (GWP = 14800), R14 (GWP = 7390).

GWP is the abbreviation for Global Warming Potential and denotes the potential greenhouse effect of a chemical compound. It is a measure of the relative contribution of a substance to the greenhouse effect. Carbon dioxide has a GWP = 1 and is used as a reference value. This value describes the greenhouse effect over a period of (typically) 100 years. If a chemical compound has a GWP value of 20, for instance, this means that a kilogram of this compound will, within the first 100 years after it is released, contribute to the greenhouse effect 20 times as much as 1 kg of CO2.

The CO2 equivalent is a reference value that makes it possible to compare various greenhouse gases. It is used to compare the potential greenhouse effect of a chemical compound to the potential greenhouse effect of CO2. In this context, it is expressed as the Global Warming Potential (GWP). The CO2 equivalent is calculated as the product of the GWP and the refrigerant charge, e.g., 1 kg of R134a (GWP = 1430 ) has a CO2 equivalent of 1.43 metric tons. This means that 1 kg of refrigerant R134a released into the atmosphere has an effect equivalent to 1340 kg of CO2.

ODP is the abbreviation for Ozone Depletion Potential and denotes the potential ozone depleting effect of a chemical compound. It is a measure of the relative ozone-layer depleting effect of a compound. Ozone-depleting substances are not regulated by the F-gas Regulation; they are covered by the Montreal Protocol which dates from 1989; they are subject to the production and usage restrictions that are set out therein. The Montreal Protocol defined an ODP value of 1 for the refrigerant trichlorofluoromethane (R11). The ODP values of other refrigerants are compared to this.

From 2017 onwards, according to the new Regulation, the labeling of equipment and plant (the type plate) must include details of the GWP value and be translated into all the official languages of the EU. As well as indicating the quantity of refrigerant (in kg), from 2017 onwards, the CO2 equivalent must also be stated; this is a new requirement.

Measuring instruments, heating thermostats, low-temperature thermostats that use natural refrigerants and Peltier thermoelectric equipment are not covered by the F-gas Regulation

"Phase-down scenario (Source: www.westfalen-ag.de)
The baseline values are the average total quantities produced in the EU and imported into the EU during the period from 2009 to 2012 expressed in CO2 equivalents.

Prohibition of use:
Use of R22 for maintaining or repairing refrigeration systems.

Prohibitions on placing on the market:
Fridge-freezers for commercial use (hermetically sealed) which contain fluorinated greenhouse gases (refrigerants) having a GWP ≥ 2500.
Stationary refrigeration systems (this means all LAUDA refrigeration equipment) which contains fluorinated greenhouse gases (refrigerants) having a GWP ≥ 2500. Plant that is used to refrigerate products below -50 °C is exempted.


Prohibition of use:
Use of fluorinated greenhouse gases (refrigerants) as fresh products having a GWP ≥ 2500 for maintaining or repairing refrigeration systems having a refrigerant charge ≥ 40 metric tons CO2 equivalent (e.g., R404A: 40 metric tons CO2 equivalent is 10.2 kg). Plant that is used to refrigerate products below -50 °C is exempted. Reclaimed or recycled fluorinated greenhouse gases having a GWP value above 2500 may, however, continue to be used. No maintenance or repair restrictions are placed on fluorinated greenhouse gases having a GWP value below 2500.

There will be no explicit impact on LAUDA products.
Prohibitions on placing on the market apply only to "commercial applications" (e.g., in the food sector).

Prohibition of use:
Use of fluorinated greenhouse gases (refrigerants) having a GWP ≥ 2500 for maintaining or repairing refrigeration systems having a refrigerant charge ≥ 40 metric tons CO2 equivalent (e.g., R404A: 40 metric tons CO2 equivalent is 10.2 kg).

Plant that is used to refrigerate products below -50 °C is exempted.

No. No LAUDA products will have to be discontinued. The F-gas Regulation makes no explicit provision for any operating ban.

Additional requirements for operators were already formulated in a similar manner in the superseded F-gas Regulation. Operators are responsible for carrying out leakage inspections on a regular basis. Records (log books) must also be kept for each individual plant. The content of these log books has been specified (see next question).
The obligation to retain documents for at least five years placed on operators and maintenance companies (where applicable) is a new requirement. Operators of plant which contains fluorinated greenhouse gases (refrigerants) must take precautions to prevent any leakage. They must take all technically and economically feasible measures to minimize any leakage of fluorinated greenhouse gases. If leakage of fluorinated greenhouse gases is detected, the operator must make sure that the plant is repaired without delay.

a) Quantity and type of fluorinated greenhouse gases (refrigerants) that the plant contains;
b) Quantity of fluorinated greenhouse gases that were added during installation, repair or maintenance or because of leakage;
c) Details of whether the fluorinated greenhouse gases used have been recycled or reclaimed, including the name and address of the recycling or reclamation facility and its certification number if applicable;
d) Quantity of reclaimed fluorinated greenhouse gases;
e) Details of the company that installed, maintained, serviced and, if applicable, repaired or decommissioned the plant, including the number of its certificate if applicable;
f) Dates and times and results of inspections carried out in accordance with Article 4 paragraphs 1 to 3;
g) Measures taken to reclaim and dispose of fluorinated greenhouse gases if the plant has been decommissioned.


Source: Regulation (EU) 517/2014, Section 1, Article 6.

Yes, but there are various restrictions. From 2020 onwards, the use of fluorinated greenhouse gases (refrigerants) as fresh products having a GWP value above 2500 is prohibited for repairing and maintaining existing refrigeration systems having a refrigerant charge ≥ 40 metric tons CO2 equivalent. This prohibition does not apply to plant that is designed for applications for refrigerating products below -50 °C. Reclaimed or recycled fluorinated greenhouse gases having a GWP value above 2500 may continue to be used to maintain and repair existing refrigeration systems until 2030. No maintenance or repair restrictions are placed on fluorinated greenhouse gases having a GWP value below 2500.

No. Some plants are exempted from leakage inspections, e.g.,:

  • Plant having a refrigerant charge of less than 5 metric tons CO2 equivalent and plant that is classified as hermetically sealed and has a refrigerant charge of less than 10 metric tons CO2 equivalent. This applies to most LAUDA thermostats.
  • Until December 31, 2016, all LAUDA thermostats having a refrigerant charge of less than 3 kg of fluorinated greenhouse gases or plant that is hermetically sealed and classified as such having a refrigerant charge of less than 6 kg of fluorinated greenhouse gases.

Your LAUDA Service Team will be glad to provide further advice.

It depends on the type of plant. They are not mandatory for plant having a refrigerant charge of less than 500 metric tons CO2 equivalent. If a leakage detection system is installed, the number of stipulated leakage inspections is smaller. Such systems are only relevant in the case of heating and cooling systems with very large refrigerant charges.

LAUDA's Service Network has the requisite specialist skills and qualifications to carry out tightness tests. We recommend this be done as part of routine maintenance. Regular maintenance will ensure compliance with legal requirements and make sure that your equipment remains in good working order. Our Service Department will be happy to submit a quotation.

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Depending on the product line, alternative refrigerants such as R290 are being used to replace R404A, and R170 is being used as a replacement for R508A in new product lines. For many years, LAUDA has sought to reduce the proportion of CO2 equivalents in LAUDA products, regardless of the new Regulation and we will be continuing these efforts. Since 2011, LAUDA has almost halved its total CO2 equivalents by, among other things, optimizing the schema cooling circuits of new product lines so that they need smaller quantities of fluorinated refrigerants. Refrigerant-free thermoelectric cooling technology is also used for certain products. This has made it possible to make a significant contribution towards reducing greenhouse effects overall.

Fluorinated greenhouse gases will continue to remain an important working medium in refrigeration systems in the future. Fluorinated greenhouse gases are so-called safety refrigerants. These refrigerants have been tried and tested in use for several decades and ensure that cooling systems operate reliably. The fluorinated refrigerants used by LAUDA are non-combustible. Equipment is carefully tested to ensure it is leak-tight and escape of refrigerants is an exceptionally rare occurrence. According to the new F-gas Regulation (EU) 517/2014, the continued use of fluorinated greenhouse gases in future LAUDA products is entirely acceptable.

When it comes to environmental protection matters, individual countries may formulate requirements in stricter terms than this Regulation does. Examples include explicit taxes for fluorinated refrigerants in Spain and harsher bans in Denmark.